Unlike usual tsunamis,
which originate from tectonic activity and the raising or
lowering of the sea floor, known mega tsunamis have
originated from large scale landslides, earthquakes and impact events.
A mega tsunami is meant to
refer to a tsunami with an initial wave amplitude (wave
height) measured in several tens, hundreds or possibly
thousands of meters, potentially reaching up to about a
kilometer in height.
Normal tsunamis generated at sea have a small wave height
offshore, and a very long wavelength (often hundreds of
kilometers long). They generally pass unnoticed at sea,
forming only a slight swell usually of the order of 30 cm
(12 in) above the normal sea surface. When they reach land
the wave height increases dramatically as the base of the
wave pushes the water column above it upwards.
Mega tsunamis can be caused
by giant landslides, and asteroid impacts. Underwater
earthquakes do not normally generate such large tsunamis,
but landslides next to bodies of water resulting from
earthquakes do, since they cause a massive amount of
In 1792, Mount Unzen in
Japan erupted, causing part of the volcano to collapse
into the sea. The landslide caused a mega tsunami that
reached 330 ft (100 meters) high and killed 15,000 people
in the local fishing villages.
A future eruption involving
the Cumbre Vieja on the volcanic ocean island of La Palma,
in the Canary Islands could create a mega-tsunami, if it
were to catastrophically slide into the ocean. It could
also generate a wave with an initial height of about 1,000
meters (3,281 ft) at the island, and a likely height of
around 50 meters (164 ft) at the Caribbean and the Eastern
North American seaboard when it runs ashore eight or more
All Vivos shelters will be
located in high, mountainous terrain, providing the
benefit of elevation, as well as the opportunity for
immediate runoff of any water deposits, versus being
buried below a permanent new body of water.
To help resist this form of
catastrophe, the Vivos shelters are designed to withstand:
• Flooding submersion for extended periods
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Tsunami; it is used under
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